Harvard Referencing Part 2 – The Reference List

Harvard Referencing Part 2 – The Reference List

OVERVIEW

At the end of your assignment, you should include a list of every reference cited in the body of the assignment.   This is to allow your readers to identify and locate your sources.  The structure and content of the reference will differ, depending on what type of source material you are dealing with.  In general, the author, the year of publication, and the title of the work will always be included.

Situations where you have incomplete details of the work are examined in Section VIII.

In the Harvard style, there are a number of rules with regard to the information the reference must contain and the sequence in which this information must be presented.  However, so long as there is consistency in your referencing, some deviation from these rules is permissible.

The reference list should be in alphabetical order; however, it is not necessary to order the list in accordance with the type of source being referred to.  Where you are referencing a number of works by the same author, they should be listed in chronological order.

I – BOOKS

1. Books by one author

The details used in the reference should be taken from the title page of the book, as opposed to from the front cover.  You should state which edition you are referring to, unless it is a first edition, where no reference to the edition is necessary.

When referencing a book by a single author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year. Title of book. Edition. (Where the book is a first edition, this can be omitted) Place of publication (The town or city, as opposed to the country, should be included): Publisher.

Example of a reference for the 1st edition of a book by a single author:

Smith, A., 1995. How to Proofread. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Example of a reference for the 3rd edition of a book by a single author:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith (1995) sets out a number of guidelines with regard to effective proofreading.

A number of international students have difficulty acclimatising to their new educational environment (Cooper, 2008).

If you are citing an American place name that could be confused with a UK or Irish town, the US State should be referenced, in an abbreviated form.  E.G. Dublin, CA.

2. Books by multiple authors

In the reference list, every author of the book should be referred to in the reference.  The order they are listed in should correspond to the order in which they appear in the document.  ‘And’ should be inserted between the last two authors.

When referencing a book with multiple authors, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Smith, A., Cooper, J. and Whistler, D., 2009. International Students and Language. London: Proofessor Publishers.

Jones, B., Reilly, N., McDonald, M. and McNeil, O., 2012. Changing Educational Environments and the International Student. 6th Ed. Dublin: International Press.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith, Cooper and Whistler (2010) examine the impact of language on international students.

Shifting from one education system to another can have a significant impact on student performance (Jones et al., 2012, p. 228).

3. Edited Books

When referencing an edited book, you must include the surname and initial of every editor, followed by ed. where there is a single editor and eds. where there is more than one editor.

When referencing an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press.

4. Chapters of edited books

When referencing a chapter in an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initial(s). Year chapter was written. Title of chapter. In: Book editor(s) initial(s) and surname(s), ed./eds. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers.

References

Jones, F., 2010. The impact on language on academic performance in foreign universities. In: Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 99-120.

McDonald, M., 2004. The Irish perspective. In: Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4.

The citations for the above chapters in the body of the article would be as follows:

(Jones, 2010)

(McDonald, 2004)

5. More that one work by the same author

Where you have cited a number of works by the same author, that are published in the same year, those works should be distinguished by inserting a lower case letter after the date of publication.  No space should be left between the date and the year.  It is important to ensure that the letters used are consistent with those used in the body of the text.

When referencing multiple works by the same author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year and letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Cooper, J., 2008a. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Cooper, J., 2008b. Proofreading: A Guide for Beginners. Dublin: University Press.

These works should be listed in the order in which they were cited in the body of your assignment.

The reference to the above texts within the body of your assignment would be as follows:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

Where you are referring to a number of authors with the same surname, there are two options.  First, the rules outlined above can be followed. Alternatively, you can include the author’s initial in the citation in the body of the text.

For example, if you want to cite two articles written by Jack Cooper in 2008 and one article written by Mark Cooper in 2008, you could use the following citations in the body of your assignment:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

(Cooper, 2008c)

Alternatively, you could cite them as follows:

(Cooper, J. 2008a)

(Cooper, J. 2008b)

(Cooper, M. 2008)

Finally, where you have cited a number of works by the same author that were published in different years, you should list them in your reference list in the order in which they were published.

6. Translated Books

Where you are referencing a work that has been translated, the following details should be included, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (initial., surname) Place: Publisher.

Dubois, B., 2005. International Students in the French Educational System. Translated from French by J. Cooper. London: Proofessor Press.

Where you are referencing a classic historical work, you can include the date of both the original publication and the translation.

Aristotle, 350BC. On Interpretation. Translated by E. M. Edghill., 1978. New York: Classics Press.

Where you are referencing a publication written in a different language, you should use the same rules as for English texts.  However, you should also include a translation.  You should contact your University department to ensure that referencing works in languages other than English is acceptable.OVERVIEW

At the end of your assignment, you should include a list of every reference cited in the body of the assignment.   This is to allow your readers to identify and locate your sources.  The structure and content of the reference will differ, depending on what type of source material you are dealing with.  In general, the author, the year of publication, and the title of the work will always be included.

Situations where you have incomplete details of the work are examined in Section VIII.

In the Harvard style, there are a number of rules with regard to the information the reference must contain and the sequence in which this information must be presented.  However, so long as there is consistency in your referencing, some deviation from these rules is permissible.

The reference list should be in alphabetical order; however, it is not necessary to order the list in accordance with the type of source being referred to.  Where you are referencing a number of works by the same author, they should be listed in chronological order.

I – BOOKS

1. Books by one author

The details used in the reference should be taken from the title page of the book, as opposed to from the front cover.  You should state which edition you are referring to, unless it is a first edition, where no reference to the edition is necessary.

When referencing a book by a single author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year. Title of book. Edition. (Where the book is a first edition, this can be omitted) Place of publication (The town or city, as opposed to the country, should be included): Publisher.

Example of a reference for the 1st edition of a book by a single author:

Smith, A., 1995. How to Proofread. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Example of a reference for the 3rd edition of a book by a single author:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith (1995) sets out a number of guidelines with regard to effective proofreading.

A number of international students have difficulty acclimatising to their new educational environment (Cooper, 2008).

If you are citing an American place name that could be confused with a UK or Irish town, the US State should be referenced, in an abbreviated form.  E.G. Dublin, CA.

2. Books by multiple authors

In the reference list, every author of the book should be referred to in the reference.  The order they are listed in should correspond to the order in which they appear in the document.  ‘And’ should be inserted between the last two authors.

When referencing a book with multiple authors, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Smith, A., Cooper, J. and Whistler, D., 2009. International Students and Language. London: Proofessor Publishers.

Jones, B., Reilly, N., McDonald, M. and McNeil, O., 2012. Changing Educational Environments and the International Student. 6th Ed. Dublin: International Press.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith, Cooper and Whistler (2010) examine the impact of language on international students.

Shifting from one education system to another can have a significant impact on student performance (Jones et al., 2012, p. 228).

3. Edited Books

When referencing an edited book, you must include the surname and initial of every editor, followed by ed. where there is a single editor and eds. where there is more than one editor.

When referencing an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press.

4. Chapters of edited books

When referencing a chapter in an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initial(s). Year chapter was written. Title of chapter. In: Book editor(s) initial(s) and surname(s), ed./eds. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers.

References

Jones, F., 2010. The impact on language on academic performance in foreign universities. In: Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 99-120.

McDonald, M., 2004. The Irish perspective. In: Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4.

The citations for the above chapters in the body of the article would be as follows:

(Jones, 2010)

(McDonald, 2004)

5. More that one work by the same author

Where you have cited a number of works by the same author, that are published in the same year, those works should be distinguished by inserting a lower case letter after the date of publication.  No space should be left between the date and the year.  It is important to ensure that the letters used are consistent with those used in the body of the text.

When referencing multiple works by the same author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year and letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Cooper, J., 2008a. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Cooper, J., 2008b. Proofreading: A Guide for Beginners. Dublin: University Press.

These works should be listed in the order in which they were cited in the body of your assignment.

The reference to the above texts within the body of your assignment would be as follows:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

Where you are referring to a number of authors with the same surname, there are two options.  First, the rules outlined above can be followed. Alternatively, you can include the author’s initial in the citation in the body of the text.

For example, if you want to cite two articles written by Jack Cooper in 2008 and one article written by Mark Cooper in 2008, you could use the following citations in the body of your assignment:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

(Cooper, 2008c)

Alternatively, you could cite them as follows:

(Cooper, J. 2008a)

(Cooper, J. 2008b)

(Cooper, M. 2008)

Finally, where you have cited a number of works by the same author that were published in different years, you should list them in your reference list in the order in which they were published.

6. Translated Books

Where you are referencing a work that has been translated, the following details should be included, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (initial., surname) Place: Publisher.

Dubois, B., 2005. International Students in the French Educational System. Translated from French by J. Cooper. London: Proofessor Press.

Where you are referencing a classic historical work, you can include the date of both the original publication and the translation.

Aristotle, 350BC. On Interpretation. Translated by E. M. Edghill., 1978. New York: Classics Press.

Where you are referencing a publication written in a different language, you should use the same rules as for English texts.  However, you should also include a translation.  You should contact your University department to ensure that referencing works in languages other than English is acceptable.OVERVIEW

At the end of your assignment, you should include a list of every reference cited in the body of the assignment.   This is to allow your readers to identify and locate your sources.  The structure and content of the reference will differ, depending on what type of source material you are dealing with.  In general, the author, the year of publication, and the title of the work will always be included.

Situations where you have incomplete details of the work are examined in Section VIII.

In the Harvard style, there are a number of rules with regard to the information the reference must contain and the sequence in which this information must be presented.  However, so long as there is consistency in your referencing, some deviation from these rules is permissible.

The reference list should be in alphabetical order; however, it is not necessary to order the list in accordance with the type of source being referred to.  Where you are referencing a number of works by the same author, they should be listed in chronological order.

I – BOOKS

1. Books by one author

The details used in the reference should be taken from the title page of the book, as opposed to from the front cover.  You should state which edition you are referring to, unless it is a first edition, where no reference to the edition is necessary.

When referencing a book by a single author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year. Title of book. Edition. (Where the book is a first edition, this can be omitted) Place of publication (The town or city, as opposed to the country, should be included): Publisher.

Example of a reference for the 1st edition of a book by a single author:

Smith, A., 1995. How to Proofread. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Example of a reference for the 3rd edition of a book by a single author:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith (1995) sets out a number of guidelines with regard to effective proofreading.

A number of international students have difficulty acclimatising to their new educational environment (Cooper, 2008).

If you are citing an American place name that could be confused with a UK or Irish town, the US State should be referenced, in an abbreviated form.  E.G. Dublin, CA.

2. Books by multiple authors

In the reference list, every author of the book should be referred to in the reference.  The order they are listed in should correspond to the order in which they appear in the document.  ‘And’ should be inserted between the last two authors.

When referencing a book with multiple authors, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Smith, A., Cooper, J. and Whistler, D., 2009. International Students and Language. London: Proofessor Publishers.

Jones, B., Reilly, N., McDonald, M. and McNeil, O., 2012. Changing Educational Environments and the International Student. 6th Ed. Dublin: International Press.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith, Cooper and Whistler (2010) examine the impact of language on international students.

Shifting from one education system to another can have a significant impact on student performance (Jones et al., 2012, p. 228).

3. Edited Books

When referencing an edited book, you must include the surname and initial of every editor, followed by ed. where there is a single editor and eds. where there is more than one editor.

When referencing an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press.

4. Chapters of edited books

When referencing a chapter in an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initial(s). Year chapter was written. Title of chapter. In: Book editor(s) initial(s) and surname(s), ed./eds. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers.

References

Jones, F., 2010. The impact on language on academic performance in foreign universities. In: Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 99-120.

McDonald, M., 2004. The Irish perspective. In: Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4.

The citations for the above chapters in the body of the article would be as follows:

(Jones, 2010)

(McDonald, 2004)

5. More that one work by the same author

Where you have cited a number of works by the same author, that are published in the same year, those works should be distinguished by inserting a lower case letter after the date of publication.  No space should be left between the date and the year.  It is important to ensure that the letters used are consistent with those used in the body of the text.

When referencing multiple works by the same author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year and letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Cooper, J., 2008a. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Cooper, J., 2008b. Proofreading: A Guide for Beginners. Dublin: University Press.

These works should be listed in the order in which they were cited in the body of your assignment.

The reference to the above texts within the body of your assignment would be as follows:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

Where you are referring to a number of authors with the same surname, there are two options.  First, the rules outlined above can be followed. Alternatively, you can include the author’s initial in the citation in the body of the text.

For example, if you want to cite two articles written by Jack Cooper in 2008 and one article written by Mark Cooper in 2008, you could use the following citations in the body of your assignment:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

(Cooper, 2008c)

Alternatively, you could cite them as follows:

(Cooper, J. 2008a)

(Cooper, J. 2008b)

(Cooper, M. 2008)

Finally, where you have cited a number of works by the same author that were published in different years, you should list them in your reference list in the order in which they were published.

6. Translated Books

Where you are referencing a work that has been translated, the following details should be included, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (initial., surname) Place: Publisher.

Dubois, B., 2005. International Students in the French Educational System. Translated from French by J. Cooper. London: Proofessor Press.

Where you are referencing a classic historical work, you can include the date of both the original publication and the translation.

Aristotle, 350BC. On Interpretation. Translated by E. M. Edghill., 1978. New York: Classics Press.

Where you are referencing a publication written in a different language, you should use the same rules as for English texts.  However, you should also include a translation.  You should contact your University department to ensure that referencing works in languages other than English is acceptable.OVERVIEW

At the end of your assignment, you should include a list of every reference cited in the body of the assignment.   This is to allow your readers to identify and locate your sources.  The structure and content of the reference will differ, depending on what type of source material you are dealing with.  In general, the author, the year of publication, and the title of the work will always be included.

Situations where you have incomplete details of the work are examined in Section VIII.

In the Harvard style, there are a number of rules with regard to the information the reference must contain and the sequence in which this information must be presented.  However, so long as there is consistency in your referencing, some deviation from these rules is permissible.

The reference list should be in alphabetical order; however, it is not necessary to order the list in accordance with the type of source being referred to.  Where you are referencing a number of works by the same author, they should be listed in chronological order.

I – BOOKS

1. Books by one author

The details used in the reference should be taken from the title page of the book, as opposed to from the front cover.  You should state which edition you are referring to, unless it is a first edition, where no reference to the edition is necessary.

When referencing a book by a single author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year. Title of book. Edition. (Where the book is a first edition, this can be omitted) Place of publication (The town or city, as opposed to the country, should be included): Publisher.

Example of a reference for the 1st edition of a book by a single author:

Smith, A., 1995. How to Proofread. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Example of a reference for the 3rd edition of a book by a single author:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith (1995) sets out a number of guidelines with regard to effective proofreading.

A number of international students have difficulty acclimatising to their new educational environment (Cooper, 2008).

If you are citing an American place name that could be confused with a UK or Irish town, the US State should be referenced, in an abbreviated form.  E.G. Dublin, CA.

2. Books by multiple authors

In the reference list, every author of the book should be referred to in the reference.  The order they are listed in should correspond to the order in which they appear in the document.  ‘And’ should be inserted between the last two authors.

When referencing a book with multiple authors, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Smith, A., Cooper, J. and Whistler, D., 2009. International Students and Language. London: Proofessor Publishers.

Jones, B., Reilly, N., McDonald, M. and McNeil, O., 2012. Changing Educational Environments and the International Student. 6th Ed. Dublin: International Press.

References to the above examples within the body of your work might appear as follows:

Smith, Cooper and Whistler (2010) examine the impact of language on international students.

Shifting from one education system to another can have a significant impact on student performance (Jones et al., 2012, p. 228).

3. Edited Books

When referencing an edited book, you must include the surname and initial of every editor, followed by ed. where there is a single editor and eds. where there is more than one editor.

When referencing an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press.

4. Chapters of edited books

When referencing a chapter in an edited book, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initial(s). Year chapter was written. Title of chapter. In: Book editor(s) initial(s) and surname(s), ed./eds. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers.

References

Jones, F., 2010. The impact on language on academic performance in foreign universities. In: Whistler, D., ed., 2013. Language, Culture, and Education. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 99-120.

McDonald, M., 2004. The Irish perspective. In: Cooper, J. and Smith, A. eds., 2004. Shifting Educational Experiences: Perspectives from Different Cultures. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4.

The citations for the above chapters in the body of the article would be as follows:

(Jones, 2010)

(McDonald, 2004)

5. More that one work by the same author

Where you have cited a number of works by the same author, that are published in the same year, those works should be distinguished by inserting a lower case letter after the date of publication.  No space should be left between the date and the year.  It is important to ensure that the letters used are consistent with those used in the body of the text.

When referencing multiple works by the same author, you should include the following details, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initial., Year and letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Cooper, J., 2008a. International Students in the UK. 3rd Ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

Cooper, J., 2008b. Proofreading: A Guide for Beginners. Dublin: University Press.

These works should be listed in the order in which they were cited in the body of your assignment.

The reference to the above texts within the body of your assignment would be as follows:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

Where you are referring to a number of authors with the same surname, there are two options.  First, the rules outlined above can be followed. Alternatively, you can include the author’s initial in the citation in the body of the text.

For example, if you want to cite two articles written by Jack Cooper in 2008 and one article written by Mark Cooper in 2008, you could use the following citations in the body of your assignment:

(Cooper, 2008a)

(Cooper, 2008b)

(Cooper, 2008c)

Alternatively, you could cite them as follows:

(Cooper, J. 2008a)

(Cooper, J. 2008b)

(Cooper, M. 2008)

Finally, where you have cited a number of works by the same author that were published in different years, you should list them in your reference list in the order in which they were published.

6. Translated Books

Where you are referencing a work that has been translated, the following details should be included, in the order in which they are listed:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (initial., surname) Place: Publisher.

Dubois, B., 2005. International Students in the French Educational System. Translated from French by J. Cooper. London: Proofessor Press.

Where you are referencing a classic historical work, you can include the date of both the original publication and the translation.

Aristotle, 350BC. On Interpretation. Translated by E. M. Edghill., 1978. New York: Classics Press.

Where you are referencing a publication written in a different language, you should use the same rules as for English texts.  However, you should also include a translation.  You should contact your University department to ensure that referencing works in languages other than English is acceptable.