Harvard Referencing Part 1 – Citation in Text

Harvard Referencing Part 1 – Citation in Text

Citations within the text

When proofreading for our clients, we notice that a major issue in our customers’ essays and dissertations with the referencing.

Proofessor has created this guide to help you to correctly use the Harvard referencing system when you are writing your essays and dissertations.  Examples are included with explanations.

1. Directly citing an author within the text

If you are referencing an author as part of your sentence, you must include the author’s surname, as well as the year the work was published:

Cooper (2005) states that international students who want to interact with English people should visit the pub more often.

If you are including a direct quote from the author’s work, you must include the page number of the quote:

Cooper (2005, pp.25-26) states that “Most English people love to hang out in pubs and this is a great place for international students to converse with them if they want to improve their English.”

2. Referring to a work without directly citing the author’s name in the text

If you are relying on an author’s work to establish a point, but are not directly citing their name in the text, then the author’s name and the year the work was published should be inputted at either the relevant part of the sentence, or at end of the sentence:

Visiting pubs provides international students with the opportunity to converse with native English speakers (Cooper, 2008).

3. Directly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are referring to two or more authors directly to support your point, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published:

Whistler (1999) & Cooper (2000) both emphasise the importance of providing an excellent proofreading service to their clients.

4. Indirectly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are relying on two or more authors to support your point, but are not directly referencing them in the text, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published.  This information should be included in a list at the relevant part of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.  The references should be in brackets and should be separated by semicolons:

It is essential to provide an excellent proofreading service that satisfies customer needs (Whistler, 1999; Cooper, 2000).

5. One publication written by two or three authors

Where you are citing a single publication that has two or three authors, each author should be listed.

Direct Use:

Research conducted by Whistler, Cooper and Smith (2005) indicates that…

Indirect Use:

Research confirms the importance of accurate proofreading (Whistler, Cooper and Smith, 2005).

6. Four authors or more

Where a publication has four or more authors, the first author’s name should be used, followed by “et al.”, which means, “and others”.

Direct usage:

Cooper et al. (2009) state that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect usage:

Language is a significant barrier for international students (Cooper et al., 2009).

7. A number of publications by a single author in different years

If several publications by the same author, published in different years, are cited in support of the same point, the works should be cited sequentially, starting with the work that was published first.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2007; 2009) states that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

The literature (Cooper, 2007; 2009) indicates that language is a significant barrier for international students.

8. A number of publications by a single author in the same year

Where you are referencing a number of publications by the same author, from the same year, the publications should be distinguished by the addition of a lower case letter after the year.  There should be no space between the year and the letter:

Research conducted by Cooper (2007a) suggests that language is a significant barrier for international students; however, a later study carried out by Cooper (2007b) indicates that this barrier can be overcome.

Where a number of publications by the same author, published in the same year, are used to support the same point, each publication should be cited, using lower case letters to distinguish the different publications:

Cooper (2007a; b) has repeatedly emphasised that…

9. Citing individual chapters in edited works

Where you are referring to a piece that is published as a chapter in a larger edited work, the author of the individual chapter should be cited in the text, not the editor of the entire work:

In his work on the importance of proofreading, Cooper (2005) states…

In the list of references at the end of your work, both the author of the individual chapter and the editor must be referred to:

Cooper, A., 2005. The importance of effective proofreading. In J. Smith, ed. 2008. Language as a barrier for international students. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4

10. Corporate authors

When you are citing a work that does not have an individual author, but is published by a body, such as an organisation, governmental body, or company, you can cite the work as if that body is the author.  Examples of bodies that might publish works are the Department of Education, Amnesty International, or the Health Information and Quality Authority.  Where a specially formed panel or committee published a report, again, that work can be cited as if the committee is the author.  An example of such a committee is the Constitutional Review Group or the Law Reform Committee.

Where there is a common abbreviation for the organisation or committee, the full name must be used in the first citation, but the abbreviation can be used in subsequent citations.

1st citation:

… following a review of the relevant practice in 2005, the Health Information and Quality Authority made recommendations…

2nd citation:

In recent years, HIQA (2012) has published a report on this topic.

In the reference list at the end of the text, the full title of the organisation should be used, not the abbreviation:

Health Information and Quality Authority, 2012. National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Dublin: HIQA.

However, there are number of exceptions to this, where the abbreviation constitutes part of the name of the body, as opposed to an abbreviation of that name:

BBC News

11. Unidentifiable author

Where a publication is by an unknown author, or where you cannot ascertain who the author is, it can be cited using ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’.  Where the publication is being used as evidentiary support in your assignment, it is important that you make every attempt to identify the author before resorting to this step:

           Proofreading for Beginners (Anon., 2008)

12. No Date

Where there is no date on a publication, n.d. is inserted into the citation in place of a date.  Once again, if at all possible, the date of publication should be identified if the work is to be used as evidentiary support for your assignment:

Direct Use:

                Cooper (n.d.) notes the importance of proofreading for international students.

Indirect Use:

                Proofreading is of significant importance to international students (Cooper, n.d)

This is dealt with in more detail in VIII – Missing details

13. Page Numbers

Where you use a direct quote, or reference a specific section of a publication, you must include the page number in your citation, so that the passage in question can be easily located.  Where the passage you are referring to is on a single page, p. is used.  Where the passage spans two or more pages, pp. is used.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2008, p.59) states, “55% of international students in the UK note that language is a significant barrier to success.”

Indirect Use:

Over half the international students in the UK perceive language to be a significant barrier (Cooper 2008, p.124).

14. Citing passages in a work

Where you cite entire passages of a publication, those passages must be placed in quotation marks and the page number must be cited, so as to allow the source to be easily located.   The following phrases can be used when quoting directly from a publication:

Smith (1999) states, “[insert quote]”

Cooper (2005) notes that “[insert quote]”

For example:

In their work on international students, Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state, “It has been repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

Where the quotation is 50 words or longer, it should be indented from the body of the text.  This ensures that the reader is aware that the quotation is by a different author:

Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state:

“International students face a number of obstacles when relocating to new social and educational environments.  Frequently, language is the greatest barrier to successful social integration and educational success.  A well‑researched and original essay may fail to achieve high marks, as a result of poor spelling, grammar, or structure.  There are a number of steps that can be taken by international students to combat this problem.  In particular, it is repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

15. Secondary sources

On occasion, you may find a reference to another source in a publication that you are reading that you wish to reference in your own work.  For example, a recent article may refer to the results of a study carried out in the 1950s.  You may want to use those results as evidence in your own work, but be unable to access the original study.  This is known as a secondary source.

It is always desirable to cite primary sources.  The secondary source might have distorted the findings of the primary source or have cited it incorrectly.  However, while you should always attempt to access and read the original source in its entirety, where you are unable to do so, you can reference it as a secondary source.  This reference should include the author and year of publication of the original publication, as well as the publication in which it is referred to.  It should also include the page number of that reference.

Where you have read about a 1959 study by Jones, on page 55 of a 2008 article by Cooper, the citation would be as follows:

Direct Use:

A study carried out by Jones (1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55) demonstrates that language can be a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

Language can be a significant barrier for international students (Jones, 1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55)

NB: Only the work you have actually read, i.e. Copper (2008), should appear in the list of sources at the end of your essay

16. Tables and diagrams

If you are including data, or a complete diagram or table in your work, you must reference the source of that data.  Where you are referring to data contained in the work of an author and produced by that author, you must reference the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page the table is on:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008, p.59)

Where the author has not produced the data, but has taken it from a different author, it should be cited as a secondary source.  So, if you have only read a more recent article by Whistler in 2012, page 8 of which refers to the statistics produced by Cooper, it should be cited as follows:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008 cited in Whistler, 2012, p.8)

Where you are replicating the whole table, the citation is inserted below the table.  The citation should include the author and the publication date of the work you have read, as well as details of the original source of the table. The complete citation should be included in your list of references at the end of your essay. The example below is a (fictional) graph created by the Department of Education in 2000, taken from page 60 of a (fictional) book written by John Cooper, called International Students in the UK, which is the 3rd edition and was published by Proofessor Press in London, in 2008.

Referencing

Referencing

Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60

You can also reference the table in your essay, without replicating the entire table:

Up to 90% of international students in the UK note that they encounter problems with spelling when writing essays, in comparison to 40% of domestic students (Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60)

The reference for the publication the table was sourced from should then be included in your reference list:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

17. Websites

If you are referring to information sourced from a website, it is necessary to include a citation stating the authorship of the website, which may be, for example, a limited company, a government department, or an NGO.  You should also attempt to identify the date the material was published.  You may be able to find this information at the bottom of the website, where copyright is references.

For example, if you want to cite an article on immigration that you found on the BBC website:

A recent study on immigration in the UK (BBC, 2012) demonstrates that…Citations within the text

When proofreading for our clients, we notice that a major issue in our customers’ essays and dissertations with the referencing.

Proofessor has created this guide to help you to correctly use the Harvard referencing system when you are writing your essays and dissertations.  Examples are included with explanations.

1. Directly citing an author within the text

If you are referencing an author as part of your sentence, you must include the author’s surname, as well as the year the work was published:

Cooper (2005) states that international students who want to interact with English people should visit the pub more often.

If you are including a direct quote from the author’s work, you must include the page number of the quote:

Cooper (2005, pp.25-26) states that “Most English people love to hang out in pubs and this is a great place for international students to converse with them if they want to improve their English.”

2. Referring to a work without directly citing the author’s name in the text

If you are relying on an author’s work to establish a point, but are not directly citing their name in the text, then the author’s name and the year the work was published should be inputted at either the relevant part of the sentence, or at end of the sentence:

Visiting pubs provides international students with the opportunity to converse with native English speakers (Cooper, 2008).

3. Directly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are referring to two or more authors directly to support your point, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published:

Whistler (1999) & Cooper (2000) both emphasise the importance of providing an excellent proofreading service to their clients.

4. Indirectly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are relying on two or more authors to support your point, but are not directly referencing them in the text, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published.  This information should be included in a list at the relevant part of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.  The references should be in brackets and should be separated by semicolons:

It is essential to provide an excellent proofreading service that satisfies customer needs (Whistler, 1999; Cooper, 2000).

5. One publication written by two or three authors

Where you are citing a single publication that has two or three authors, each author should be listed.

Direct Use:

Research conducted by Whistler, Cooper and Smith (2005) indicates that…

Indirect Use:

Research confirms the importance of accurate proofreading (Whistler, Cooper and Smith, 2005).

6. Four authors or more

Where a publication has four or more authors, the first author’s name should be used, followed by “et al.”, which means, “and others”.

Direct usage:

Cooper et al. (2009) state that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect usage:

Language is a significant barrier for international students (Cooper et al., 2009).

7. A number of publications by a single author in different years

If several publications by the same author, published in different years, are cited in support of the same point, the works should be cited sequentially, starting with the work that was published first.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2007; 2009) states that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

The literature (Cooper, 2007; 2009) indicates that language is a significant barrier for international students.

8. A number of publications by a single author in the same year

Where you are referencing a number of publications by the same author, from the same year, the publications should be distinguished by the addition of a lower case letter after the year.  There should be no space between the year and the letter:

Research conducted by Cooper (2007a) suggests that language is a significant barrier for international students; however, a later study carried out by Cooper (2007b) indicates that this barrier can be overcome.

Where a number of publications by the same author, published in the same year, are used to support the same point, each publication should be cited, using lower case letters to distinguish the different publications:

Cooper (2007a; b) has repeatedly emphasised that…

9. Citing individual chapters in edited works

Where you are referring to a piece that is published as a chapter in a larger edited work, the author of the individual chapter should be cited in the text, not the editor of the entire work:

In his work on the importance of proofreading, Cooper (2005) states…

In the list of references at the end of your work, both the author of the individual chapter and the editor must be referred to:

Cooper, A., 2005. The importance of effective proofreading. In J. Smith, ed. 2008. Language as a barrier for international students. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4

10. Corporate authors

When you are citing a work that does not have an individual author, but is published by a body, such as an organisation, governmental body, or company, you can cite the work as if that body is the author.  Examples of bodies that might publish works are the Department of Education, Amnesty International, or the Health Information and Quality Authority.  Where a specially formed panel or committee published a report, again, that work can be cited as if the committee is the author.  An example of such a committee is the Constitutional Review Group or the Law Reform Committee.

Where there is a common abbreviation for the organisation or committee, the full name must be used in the first citation, but the abbreviation can be used in subsequent citations.

1st citation:

… following a review of the relevant practice in 2005, the Health Information and Quality Authority made recommendations…

2nd citation:

In recent years, HIQA (2012) has published a report on this topic.

In the reference list at the end of the text, the full title of the organisation should be used, not the abbreviation:

Health Information and Quality Authority, 2012. National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Dublin: HIQA.

However, there are number of exceptions to this, where the abbreviation constitutes part of the name of the body, as opposed to an abbreviation of that name:

BBC News

11. Unidentifiable author

Where a publication is by an unknown author, or where you cannot ascertain who the author is, it can be cited using ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’.  Where the publication is being used as evidentiary support in your assignment, it is important that you make every attempt to identify the author before resorting to this step:

           Proofreading for Beginners (Anon., 2008)

12. No Date

Where there is no date on a publication, n.d. is inserted into the citation in place of a date.  Once again, if at all possible, the date of publication should be identified if the work is to be used as evidentiary support for your assignment:

Direct Use:

                Cooper (n.d.) notes the importance of proofreading for international students.

Indirect Use:

                Proofreading is of significant importance to international students (Cooper, n.d)

This is dealt with in more detail in VIII – Missing details

13. Page Numbers

Where you use a direct quote, or reference a specific section of a publication, you must include the page number in your citation, so that the passage in question can be easily located.  Where the passage you are referring to is on a single page, p. is used.  Where the passage spans two or more pages, pp. is used.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2008, p.59) states, “55% of international students in the UK note that language is a significant barrier to success.”

Indirect Use:

Over half the international students in the UK perceive language to be a significant barrier (Cooper 2008, p.124).

14. Citing passages in a work

Where you cite entire passages of a publication, those passages must be placed in quotation marks and the page number must be cited, so as to allow the source to be easily located.   The following phrases can be used when quoting directly from a publication:

Smith (1999) states, “[insert quote]”

Cooper (2005) notes that “[insert quote]”

For example:

In their work on international students, Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state, “It has been repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

Where the quotation is 50 words or longer, it should be indented from the body of the text.  This ensures that the reader is aware that the quotation is by a different author:

Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state:

“International students face a number of obstacles when relocating to new social and educational environments.  Frequently, language is the greatest barrier to successful social integration and educational success.  A well‑researched and original essay may fail to achieve high marks, as a result of poor spelling, grammar, or structure.  There are a number of steps that can be taken by international students to combat this problem.  In particular, it is repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

15. Secondary sources

On occasion, you may find a reference to another source in a publication that you are reading that you wish to reference in your own work.  For example, a recent article may refer to the results of a study carried out in the 1950s.  You may want to use those results as evidence in your own work, but be unable to access the original study.  This is known as a secondary source.

It is always desirable to cite primary sources.  The secondary source might have distorted the findings of the primary source or have cited it incorrectly.  However, while you should always attempt to access and read the original source in its entirety, where you are unable to do so, you can reference it as a secondary source.  This reference should include the author and year of publication of the original publication, as well as the publication in which it is referred to.  It should also include the page number of that reference.

Where you have read about a 1959 study by Jones, on page 55 of a 2008 article by Cooper, the citation would be as follows:

Direct Use:

A study carried out by Jones (1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55) demonstrates that language can be a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

Language can be a significant barrier for international students (Jones, 1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55)

NB: Only the work you have actually read, i.e. Copper (2008), should appear in the list of sources at the end of your essay

16. Tables and diagrams

If you are including data, or a complete diagram or table in your work, you must reference the source of that data.  Where you are referring to data contained in the work of an author and produced by that author, you must reference the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page the table is on:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008, p.59)

Where the author has not produced the data, but has taken it from a different author, it should be cited as a secondary source.  So, if you have only read a more recent article by Whistler in 2012, page 8 of which refers to the statistics produced by Cooper, it should be cited as follows:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008 cited in Whistler, 2012, p.8)

Where you are replicating the whole table, the citation is inserted below the table.  The citation should include the author and the publication date of the work you have read, as well as details of the original source of the table. The complete citation should be included in your list of references at the end of your essay. The example below is a (fictional) graph created by the Department of Education in 2000, taken from page 60 of a (fictional) book written by John Cooper, called International Students in the UK, which is the 3rd edition and was published by Proofessor Press in London, in 2008.

Referencing

Referencing

Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60

You can also reference the table in your essay, without replicating the entire table:

Up to 90% of international students in the UK note that they encounter problems with spelling when writing essays, in comparison to 40% of domestic students (Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60)

The reference for the publication the table was sourced from should then be included in your reference list:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

17. Websites

If you are referring to information sourced from a website, it is necessary to include a citation stating the authorship of the website, which may be, for example, a limited company, a government department, or an NGO.  You should also attempt to identify the date the material was published.  You may be able to find this information at the bottom of the website, where copyright is references.

For example, if you want to cite an article on immigration that you found on the BBC website:

A recent study on immigration in the UK (BBC, 2012) demonstrates that…Citations within the text

When proofreading for our clients, we notice that a major issue in our customers’ essays and dissertations with the referencing.

Proofessor has created this guide to help you to correctly use the Harvard referencing system when you are writing your essays and dissertations.  Examples are included with explanations.

1. Directly citing an author within the text

If you are referencing an author as part of your sentence, you must include the author’s surname, as well as the year the work was published:

Cooper (2005) states that international students who want to interact with English people should visit the pub more often.

If you are including a direct quote from the author’s work, you must include the page number of the quote:

Cooper (2005, pp.25-26) states that “Most English people love to hang out in pubs and this is a great place for international students to converse with them if they want to improve their English.”

2. Referring to a work without directly citing the author’s name in the text

If you are relying on an author’s work to establish a point, but are not directly citing their name in the text, then the author’s name and the year the work was published should be inputted at either the relevant part of the sentence, or at end of the sentence:

Visiting pubs provides international students with the opportunity to converse with native English speakers (Cooper, 2008).

3. Directly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are referring to two or more authors directly to support your point, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published:

Whistler (1999) & Cooper (2000) both emphasise the importance of providing an excellent proofreading service to their clients.

4. Indirectly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are relying on two or more authors to support your point, but are not directly referencing them in the text, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published.  This information should be included in a list at the relevant part of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.  The references should be in brackets and should be separated by semicolons:

It is essential to provide an excellent proofreading service that satisfies customer needs (Whistler, 1999; Cooper, 2000).

5. One publication written by two or three authors

Where you are citing a single publication that has two or three authors, each author should be listed.

Direct Use:

Research conducted by Whistler, Cooper and Smith (2005) indicates that…

Indirect Use:

Research confirms the importance of accurate proofreading (Whistler, Cooper and Smith, 2005).

6. Four authors or more

Where a publication has four or more authors, the first author’s name should be used, followed by “et al.”, which means, “and others”.

Direct usage:

Cooper et al. (2009) state that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect usage:

Language is a significant barrier for international students (Cooper et al., 2009).

7. A number of publications by a single author in different years

If several publications by the same author, published in different years, are cited in support of the same point, the works should be cited sequentially, starting with the work that was published first.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2007; 2009) states that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

The literature (Cooper, 2007; 2009) indicates that language is a significant barrier for international students.

8. A number of publications by a single author in the same year

Where you are referencing a number of publications by the same author, from the same year, the publications should be distinguished by the addition of a lower case letter after the year.  There should be no space between the year and the letter:

Research conducted by Cooper (2007a) suggests that language is a significant barrier for international students; however, a later study carried out by Cooper (2007b) indicates that this barrier can be overcome.

Where a number of publications by the same author, published in the same year, are used to support the same point, each publication should be cited, using lower case letters to distinguish the different publications:

Cooper (2007a; b) has repeatedly emphasised that…

9. Citing individual chapters in edited works

Where you are referring to a piece that is published as a chapter in a larger edited work, the author of the individual chapter should be cited in the text, not the editor of the entire work:

In his work on the importance of proofreading, Cooper (2005) states…

In the list of references at the end of your work, both the author of the individual chapter and the editor must be referred to:

Cooper, A., 2005. The importance of effective proofreading. In J. Smith, ed. 2008. Language as a barrier for international students. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4

10. Corporate authors

When you are citing a work that does not have an individual author, but is published by a body, such as an organisation, governmental body, or company, you can cite the work as if that body is the author.  Examples of bodies that might publish works are the Department of Education, Amnesty International, or the Health Information and Quality Authority.  Where a specially formed panel or committee published a report, again, that work can be cited as if the committee is the author.  An example of such a committee is the Constitutional Review Group or the Law Reform Committee.

Where there is a common abbreviation for the organisation or committee, the full name must be used in the first citation, but the abbreviation can be used in subsequent citations.

1st citation:

… following a review of the relevant practice in 2005, the Health Information and Quality Authority made recommendations…

2nd citation:

In recent years, HIQA (2012) has published a report on this topic.

In the reference list at the end of the text, the full title of the organisation should be used, not the abbreviation:

Health Information and Quality Authority, 2012. National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Dublin: HIQA.

However, there are number of exceptions to this, where the abbreviation constitutes part of the name of the body, as opposed to an abbreviation of that name:

BBC News

11. Unidentifiable author

Where a publication is by an unknown author, or where you cannot ascertain who the author is, it can be cited using ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’.  Where the publication is being used as evidentiary support in your assignment, it is important that you make every attempt to identify the author before resorting to this step:

           Proofreading for Beginners (Anon., 2008)

12. No Date

Where there is no date on a publication, n.d. is inserted into the citation in place of a date.  Once again, if at all possible, the date of publication should be identified if the work is to be used as evidentiary support for your assignment:

Direct Use:

                Cooper (n.d.) notes the importance of proofreading for international students.

Indirect Use:

                Proofreading is of significant importance to international students (Cooper, n.d)

This is dealt with in more detail in VIII – Missing details

13. Page Numbers

Where you use a direct quote, or reference a specific section of a publication, you must include the page number in your citation, so that the passage in question can be easily located.  Where the passage you are referring to is on a single page, p. is used.  Where the passage spans two or more pages, pp. is used.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2008, p.59) states, “55% of international students in the UK note that language is a significant barrier to success.”

Indirect Use:

Over half the international students in the UK perceive language to be a significant barrier (Cooper 2008, p.124).

14. Citing passages in a work

Where you cite entire passages of a publication, those passages must be placed in quotation marks and the page number must be cited, so as to allow the source to be easily located.   The following phrases can be used when quoting directly from a publication:

Smith (1999) states, “[insert quote]”

Cooper (2005) notes that “[insert quote]”

For example:

In their work on international students, Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state, “It has been repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

Where the quotation is 50 words or longer, it should be indented from the body of the text.  This ensures that the reader is aware that the quotation is by a different author:

Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state:

“International students face a number of obstacles when relocating to new social and educational environments.  Frequently, language is the greatest barrier to successful social integration and educational success.  A well‑researched and original essay may fail to achieve high marks, as a result of poor spelling, grammar, or structure.  There are a number of steps that can be taken by international students to combat this problem.  In particular, it is repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

15. Secondary sources

On occasion, you may find a reference to another source in a publication that you are reading that you wish to reference in your own work.  For example, a recent article may refer to the results of a study carried out in the 1950s.  You may want to use those results as evidence in your own work, but be unable to access the original study.  This is known as a secondary source.

It is always desirable to cite primary sources.  The secondary source might have distorted the findings of the primary source or have cited it incorrectly.  However, while you should always attempt to access and read the original source in its entirety, where you are unable to do so, you can reference it as a secondary source.  This reference should include the author and year of publication of the original publication, as well as the publication in which it is referred to.  It should also include the page number of that reference.

Where you have read about a 1959 study by Jones, on page 55 of a 2008 article by Cooper, the citation would be as follows:

Direct Use:

A study carried out by Jones (1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55) demonstrates that language can be a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

Language can be a significant barrier for international students (Jones, 1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55)

NB: Only the work you have actually read, i.e. Copper (2008), should appear in the list of sources at the end of your essay

16. Tables and diagrams

If you are including data, or a complete diagram or table in your work, you must reference the source of that data.  Where you are referring to data contained in the work of an author and produced by that author, you must reference the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page the table is on:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008, p.59)

Where the author has not produced the data, but has taken it from a different author, it should be cited as a secondary source.  So, if you have only read a more recent article by Whistler in 2012, page 8 of which refers to the statistics produced by Cooper, it should be cited as follows:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008 cited in Whistler, 2012, p.8)

Where you are replicating the whole table, the citation is inserted below the table.  The citation should include the author and the publication date of the work you have read, as well as details of the original source of the table. The complete citation should be included in your list of references at the end of your essay. The example below is a (fictional) graph created by the Department of Education in 2000, taken from page 60 of a (fictional) book written by John Cooper, called International Students in the UK, which is the 3rd edition and was published by Proofessor Press in London, in 2008.

Referencing

Referencing

Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60

You can also reference the table in your essay, without replicating the entire table:

Up to 90% of international students in the UK note that they encounter problems with spelling when writing essays, in comparison to 40% of domestic students (Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60)

The reference for the publication the table was sourced from should then be included in your reference list:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

17. Websites

If you are referring to information sourced from a website, it is necessary to include a citation stating the authorship of the website, which may be, for example, a limited company, a government department, or an NGO.  You should also attempt to identify the date the material was published.  You may be able to find this information at the bottom of the website, where copyright is references.

For example, if you want to cite an article on immigration that you found on the BBC website:

A recent study on immigration in the UK (BBC, 2012) demonstrates that…Citations within the text

When proofreading for our clients, we notice that a major issue in our customers’ essays and dissertations with the referencing.

Proofessor has created this guide to help you to correctly use the Harvard referencing system when you are writing your essays and dissertations.  Examples are included with explanations.

1. Directly citing an author within the text

If you are referencing an author as part of your sentence, you must include the author’s surname, as well as the year the work was published:

Cooper (2005) states that international students who want to interact with English people should visit the pub more often.

If you are including a direct quote from the author’s work, you must include the page number of the quote:

Cooper (2005, pp.25-26) states that “Most English people love to hang out in pubs and this is a great place for international students to converse with them if they want to improve their English.”

2. Referring to a work without directly citing the author’s name in the text

If you are relying on an author’s work to establish a point, but are not directly citing their name in the text, then the author’s name and the year the work was published should be inputted at either the relevant part of the sentence, or at end of the sentence:

Visiting pubs provides international students with the opportunity to converse with native English speakers (Cooper, 2008).

3. Directly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are referring to two or more authors directly to support your point, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published:

Whistler (1999) & Cooper (2000) both emphasise the importance of providing an excellent proofreading service to their clients.

4. Indirectly citing a number of works, by more than one author, in support of a point

Where you are relying on two or more authors to support your point, but are not directly referencing them in the text, you should include the name of each author, as well as the years in which their works were published.  This information should be included in a list at the relevant part of the sentence or at the end of the sentence.  The references should be in brackets and should be separated by semicolons:

It is essential to provide an excellent proofreading service that satisfies customer needs (Whistler, 1999; Cooper, 2000).

5. One publication written by two or three authors

Where you are citing a single publication that has two or three authors, each author should be listed.

Direct Use:

Research conducted by Whistler, Cooper and Smith (2005) indicates that…

Indirect Use:

Research confirms the importance of accurate proofreading (Whistler, Cooper and Smith, 2005).

6. Four authors or more

Where a publication has four or more authors, the first author’s name should be used, followed by “et al.”, which means, “and others”.

Direct usage:

Cooper et al. (2009) state that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect usage:

Language is a significant barrier for international students (Cooper et al., 2009).

7. A number of publications by a single author in different years

If several publications by the same author, published in different years, are cited in support of the same point, the works should be cited sequentially, starting with the work that was published first.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2007; 2009) states that language is a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

The literature (Cooper, 2007; 2009) indicates that language is a significant barrier for international students.

8. A number of publications by a single author in the same year

Where you are referencing a number of publications by the same author, from the same year, the publications should be distinguished by the addition of a lower case letter after the year.  There should be no space between the year and the letter:

Research conducted by Cooper (2007a) suggests that language is a significant barrier for international students; however, a later study carried out by Cooper (2007b) indicates that this barrier can be overcome.

Where a number of publications by the same author, published in the same year, are used to support the same point, each publication should be cited, using lower case letters to distinguish the different publications:

Cooper (2007a; b) has repeatedly emphasised that…

9. Citing individual chapters in edited works

Where you are referring to a piece that is published as a chapter in a larger edited work, the author of the individual chapter should be cited in the text, not the editor of the entire work:

In his work on the importance of proofreading, Cooper (2005) states…

In the list of references at the end of your work, both the author of the individual chapter and the editor must be referred to:

Cooper, A., 2005. The importance of effective proofreading. In J. Smith, ed. 2008. Language as a barrier for international students. London: Proofessor Press. Ch.4

10. Corporate authors

When you are citing a work that does not have an individual author, but is published by a body, such as an organisation, governmental body, or company, you can cite the work as if that body is the author.  Examples of bodies that might publish works are the Department of Education, Amnesty International, or the Health Information and Quality Authority.  Where a specially formed panel or committee published a report, again, that work can be cited as if the committee is the author.  An example of such a committee is the Constitutional Review Group or the Law Reform Committee.

Where there is a common abbreviation for the organisation or committee, the full name must be used in the first citation, but the abbreviation can be used in subsequent citations.

1st citation:

… following a review of the relevant practice in 2005, the Health Information and Quality Authority made recommendations…

2nd citation:

In recent years, HIQA (2012) has published a report on this topic.

In the reference list at the end of the text, the full title of the organisation should be used, not the abbreviation:

Health Information and Quality Authority, 2012. National Standards for Safer Better Healthcare. Dublin: HIQA.

However, there are number of exceptions to this, where the abbreviation constitutes part of the name of the body, as opposed to an abbreviation of that name:

BBC News

11. Unidentifiable author

Where a publication is by an unknown author, or where you cannot ascertain who the author is, it can be cited using ‘Anon’ or ‘Anonymous’.  Where the publication is being used as evidentiary support in your assignment, it is important that you make every attempt to identify the author before resorting to this step:

           Proofreading for Beginners (Anon., 2008)

12. No Date

Where there is no date on a publication, n.d. is inserted into the citation in place of a date.  Once again, if at all possible, the date of publication should be identified if the work is to be used as evidentiary support for your assignment:

Direct Use:

                Cooper (n.d.) notes the importance of proofreading for international students.

Indirect Use:

                Proofreading is of significant importance to international students (Cooper, n.d)

This is dealt with in more detail in VIII – Missing details

13. Page Numbers

Where you use a direct quote, or reference a specific section of a publication, you must include the page number in your citation, so that the passage in question can be easily located.  Where the passage you are referring to is on a single page, p. is used.  Where the passage spans two or more pages, pp. is used.

Direct Use:

Cooper (2008, p.59) states, “55% of international students in the UK note that language is a significant barrier to success.”

Indirect Use:

Over half the international students in the UK perceive language to be a significant barrier (Cooper 2008, p.124).

14. Citing passages in a work

Where you cite entire passages of a publication, those passages must be placed in quotation marks and the page number must be cited, so as to allow the source to be easily located.   The following phrases can be used when quoting directly from a publication:

Smith (1999) states, “[insert quote]”

Cooper (2005) notes that “[insert quote]”

For example:

In their work on international students, Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state, “It has been repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

Where the quotation is 50 words or longer, it should be indented from the body of the text.  This ensures that the reader is aware that the quotation is by a different author:

Cooper and Smith (2008, p.55) state:

“International students face a number of obstacles when relocating to new social and educational environments.  Frequently, language is the greatest barrier to successful social integration and educational success.  A well‑researched and original essay may fail to achieve high marks, as a result of poor spelling, grammar, or structure.  There are a number of steps that can be taken by international students to combat this problem.  In particular, it is repeatedly demonstrated that accurate proofreading is beneficial for international students who are struggling with language barriers.”

15. Secondary sources

On occasion, you may find a reference to another source in a publication that you are reading that you wish to reference in your own work.  For example, a recent article may refer to the results of a study carried out in the 1950s.  You may want to use those results as evidence in your own work, but be unable to access the original study.  This is known as a secondary source.

It is always desirable to cite primary sources.  The secondary source might have distorted the findings of the primary source or have cited it incorrectly.  However, while you should always attempt to access and read the original source in its entirety, where you are unable to do so, you can reference it as a secondary source.  This reference should include the author and year of publication of the original publication, as well as the publication in which it is referred to.  It should also include the page number of that reference.

Where you have read about a 1959 study by Jones, on page 55 of a 2008 article by Cooper, the citation would be as follows:

Direct Use:

A study carried out by Jones (1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55) demonstrates that language can be a significant barrier for international students.

Indirect Use:

Language can be a significant barrier for international students (Jones, 1959 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.55)

NB: Only the work you have actually read, i.e. Copper (2008), should appear in the list of sources at the end of your essay

16. Tables and diagrams

If you are including data, or a complete diagram or table in your work, you must reference the source of that data.  Where you are referring to data contained in the work of an author and produced by that author, you must reference the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page the table is on:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008, p.59)

Where the author has not produced the data, but has taken it from a different author, it should be cited as a secondary source.  So, if you have only read a more recent article by Whistler in 2012, page 8 of which refers to the statistics produced by Cooper, it should be cited as follows:

Over 50% of international students state that language is a significant barrier to their educational success (Cooper, 2008 cited in Whistler, 2012, p.8)

Where you are replicating the whole table, the citation is inserted below the table.  The citation should include the author and the publication date of the work you have read, as well as details of the original source of the table. The complete citation should be included in your list of references at the end of your essay. The example below is a (fictional) graph created by the Department of Education in 2000, taken from page 60 of a (fictional) book written by John Cooper, called International Students in the UK, which is the 3rd edition and was published by Proofessor Press in London, in 2008.

Referencing

Referencing

Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60

You can also reference the table in your essay, without replicating the entire table:

Up to 90% of international students in the UK note that they encounter problems with spelling when writing essays, in comparison to 40% of domestic students (Department of Education, 2000 cited in Cooper, 2008, p.60)

The reference for the publication the table was sourced from should then be included in your reference list:

Cooper, J., 2008. International Students in the UK. 3rd ed. London: Proofessor Publishing.

17. Websites

If you are referring to information sourced from a website, it is necessary to include a citation stating the authorship of the website, which may be, for example, a limited company, a government department, or an NGO.  You should also attempt to identify the date the material was published.  You may be able to find this information at the bottom of the website, where copyright is references.

For example, if you want to cite an article on immigration that you found on the BBC website:

A recent study on immigration in the UK (BBC, 2012) demonstrates that…